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  • Writer's pictureThe Katig Collective


Updated: Nov 17, 2022

Manide [abd] is a threatened language (EGIDS 6b) spoken by communities in parts of Camarines Norte, in the towns of Ragay and Lupi in western Camarines Sur, and in the areas of Calauag and Lopez in eastern Quezon (Lobel, 2010). The National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) recorded in 2005-2006 that there are less than 3,800 Manides who speak the language (as cited in Lobel, 2010). It is also believed that because of migration and employment opportunities outside the Bikol region, Manide people choose to relocate to nearby provinces such as Batangas. And while children still grow up learning and using the language, the Manide population is influenced by the surrounding Tagalog [tgl] and Bikolano-speaking communities.

Research on Manide is very limited. Lobel (2010) describes the language’s phonology, lexicon, and functors subsystems (verb morphology, pronouns, case markers, demonstratives) in an attempt to identify Manide’s linguistic affiliation. Before conducting his study, Lobel consulted with Andrew Pena who earlier wrote his master’s thesis (2009) on Manide’s ethnolinguistic vitality. Doroja (2017) contributes to the discussion by examining the basic sentence construction of Manide in her undergraduate thesis. Wordlists compiled by Nickell (1979a; 1979b) are also available in the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) archives.


Doroja, D. M. A. (2017). Amplifying small voices: A grammar sketch of Manide [Unpublished undergraduate thesis]. University of the Philippines Diliman.

Eberhard, D. M., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.). (2022). Manide. Ethnologue: Languages of the world (25th ed.).

Hammarström, H., Forkel, R., Haspelmath, M., & Bank, S. (Eds.). (2022). Spoken L1 language: Camarines Norte Agta. Glottolog 4.6.

Lobel, J. W. (2010). Manide: An undescribed Philippine language. Oceanic Linguistics, 49(2), 478-510.

Lobel, J. W. (2013). Philippine and North Bornean languages: Issues in description, subgrouping, and reconstruction (3572437) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa]. Proquest Dissertations Publishing.

Nickell, T. L. (Comp.). (1979a). Inagta Camarines Norte (Villa Bilin) word list. SIL International.

Nickell, T. L. (Comp.). (1979b). Manidi-akado (Ayta) wordlist. SIL International.

Open Language Archives Community. (n.d.). OLAC resources in and about the Manide language.

Pena, A. (2009). Ethnolinguistic vitality of Manide [Unpublished master’s thesis]. National University.

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1 Comment

Sep 27, 2022

Correction: Manide is not under Umiray Dumaget.

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